C++ Programming Tutorial for Beginners


C++ was developed by Danish computer scientist Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs since 1979 as an extension of the C language.C++ is an object-oriented programming language.C++ is a cross-platform language that can be used to create high-performance applications and it is the one of the mist popular programming languges.it can be found in today's operating systems, Graphical User Interfaces, and embedded systems.C++ is a MUST for students and working professionals to become a great Software Engineer. C++ provides rich library support in the form of Standard Template Library (STL).

C++ Language Features

  • Object-oriented: C++ is an object-oriented programming language. This means that the focus is on “objects” and manipulations around these objects. Information about how these manipulations work is abstracted out from the consumer of the object.
  • Rich library support: Through C++ Standard Template Library (STL) many functions are available that help in quickly writing code. For instance, there are standard libraries for various containers like sets, maps, hash tables, etc.
  • Speed: C++ is the preferred choice when latency is a critical metric. The compilation, as well as the execution time of a C++ program, is much faster than most other general purpose programming languages.
  • Compiled: A C++ code has to be first compiled into low-level code and then executed, unlike interpreted programming languages where no compilation is needed.
  • Pointer Support: C++ also supports pointers which are widely used in programming and are often not available in several programming languages.
Founder of C++ Bjarne Stroustrup

Basic Concepts of Object Oriented Programming

It is necessary to understand some of the concepts used extensively in object-oriented programming.These include:

  • Object
  • Classes
  • Data abstraction and encapsulation
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism
  • Dynamic binding
  • Message passing

Object

In C++, Object is a real world entity, for example, chair, car, pen, mobile, laptop etc. In other words, object is an entity that has state and behavior. Here, state means data and behavior means functionality. Object is a runtime entity, it is created at runtime.


Classes

The main purpose of C++ programming is to add object orientation to the C programming language and classes are the central feature of C++ that supports object-oriented programming and are often called user-defined types. A class is used to specify the form of an object and it combines data representation and methods for manipulating that data into one neat package. The data and functions within a class are called members of the class.

When you define a class, you define a blueprint for a data type. This doesn't actually define any data, but it does define what the class name means, that is, what an object of the class will consist of and what operations can be performed on such an object. A class definition starts with the keyword class followed by the class name; and the class body, enclosed by a pair of curly braces. A class definition must be followed either by a semicolon or a list of declarations


Data abstraction and Encapsulation

Data abstraction is the reduction of a particular body of data to a simplified representation of the whole. Abstraction, in general, is the process of taking away or removing characteristics from something in order to reduce it to a set of essential characteristics.

Encapsulation is an Object Oriented Programming concept that binds together the data and functions that manipulate the data, and that keeps both safe from outside interference and misuse. Data encapsulation led to the important OOP concept of data hiding. Data encapsulation is a mechanism of bundling the data, and the functions that use them and data abstraction is a mechanism of exposing only the interfaces and hiding the implementation details from the user.


Inheritance

The capability of a class to derive properties and characteristics from another class is called Inheritance. Inheritance is one of the most important feature of Object Oriented Programming.

  • Sub Class: The class that inherits properties from another class is called Sub class or Derived Class.
  • Super Class:The class whose properties are inherited by sub class is called Base Class or Super class.

Polymorphism

Polymorphism. Polymorphism means "many forms", and it occurs when we have many classes that are related to each other by inheritance. Like we specified in the previous chapter; Inheritance lets us inherit attributes and methods from another class. Polymorphism uses those methods to perform different tasks.


Dynamic Binding

Dynamic binding happens when all information needed for a function call cannot be determined at compile-time. Static binding can be achieved using the normal function calls, function overloading and operator overloading while dynamic binding can be achieved using the virtual functions.


Message Passing

C++ has virtual functions to support this. Message Passing: Objects communicate with one another by sending and receiving information to each other. A message for an object is a request for execution of a procedure and therefore will invoke a function in the receiving object that generates the desired results.

Basic Programs


Flow Control

IF Statement Examples


Switch Case


Goto Statement


Break and Continue


While Loop


Do While Loop


For Loop


Friend Function in C++


String Examples


Array Examples


Structure Examples


Structure & Pointer Examples


Structure & Functions Examples


Enumeration Examples


Template Examples


Functions


Inheritance Examples

Hierarchical Inheritance


Hybrid Inheritance


Multilevel Inheritance


Multiple Inheritance


Single Level Inheritance


Class and Objects

Constructor Example


Destructor Example


Operator Overloading Example


Operator and Function Example


List of Programs


Pointer Examples


Memory Management Examples


Pointers and Arrays


Virtual Function Examples



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